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大要理问答34

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34问 在舊約之下,這恩典之約是如何施行的?

王志勇版

34問:在舊約之下,這恩典之約是如何施行的?


答:在舊約之下,這恩典之約是藉著應許(羅15:8)、預言(徒3:20,24)、獻祭(來10:1)、割禮(羅4:11)、逾越節(林前5:7)及其它預表和各種蒙恩之道而施行的。這些都是以後來臨的基督的預表,在那時足夠建造選民對所應許的彌 賽亞的信心(來8,9,10;11:13),使他們因祂過犯得以完全赦免,得蒙永遠的救恩(加3:7-9,14)。


吕沛渊版


問:恩典之約在舊約時代中是如何施行?


答:恩典之約在舊約時代的施行,是藉著應許,先知的話,獻祭,割禮,逾越節,以及其他預表和律例;這些都是預先指明那將要來的基督。這些對於舊約當時來說,足以造就選民信靠所應許的彌賽亞;使他們藉著祂能得著完全的赦罪,與永遠的救恩。


OPC版

Q. 34. How was the covenant of grace administered under the Old Testament?


A. The covenant of grace was administered under the Old Testament, by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the passover, and other types and ordinances, which did all foresignify Christ then to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up the elect in faith in the promised messiah, by whom they then had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation.

CCEL版

Question 34: How was the covenant of grace administered under the Old Testament?


Answer: The covenant of grace was administered under the Old Testament, by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the passover, and other types and ordinances, which did all foresignify Christ then to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah, by whom they then had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation.

CRTA版

Q. 34. How was the covenant of grace administered under the Old Testament?


A. The covenant of grace was administered under the Old Testament, by promises,[126] prophecies,[127] sacrifices,[128] circumcision,[129] the passover,[130] and other types and ordinances, which did all fore-signify Christ then to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah,[131] by whom they then had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation.[132]


证明经文

罗15:8 我说,基督是为 神真理作了受割礼人的执事,要证实所应许列祖的话。


徒3:20 主也必差遣所预定给你们的基督耶稣降临。


徒3:24 从撒母耳以来的众先知,凡说预言的,也都说到这些日子。


来10:1 律法既是将来美事的影儿,不是本物的真像,总不能藉着每年常献一样的祭物叫那近前来的人得以完全。


罗4:11 并且他受了割礼的记号,作他未受割礼的时候因信称义的印证,叫他作一切未受割礼而信之人的父,使他们也算为义


林前5:7 你们既是无酵的面,应当把旧酵除净,好使你们成为新团;因为我们逾越节的羔羊基督已经被杀献祭了。



来8 我们所讲的事,其中第一要紧的,就是我们有这样的大祭司,已经坐在天上至大者宝座的右边,在圣所,就是真帐幕里,作执事;这帐幕是主所支的,不是人所支的。凡大祭司都是为献礼物和祭物设立的,所以这位大祭司也必须有所献的。他若在地上,必不得为祭司,因为已经有照律法献礼物的祭司。他们供奉的事本是天上事的形状和影像,正如摩西将要造帐幕的时候,蒙 神警戒他,说:“你要谨慎,作各样的物件都要照着在山上指示你的样式。”如今耶稣所得的职任是更美的,正如他作更美之约的中保;这约原是凭更美之应许立的。那前约若没有瑕疵,就无处寻求后约了。所以主指责他的百姓说(或作“所以主指前约的缺欠说”):“日子将到,我要与以色列家和犹大家另立新约,不象我拉着他们祖宗的手,领他们出埃及的时候,与他们所立的约;因为他们不恒心守我的约,我也不理他们。这是主说的。”主又说:“那些日子以后,我与以色列家所立的约乃是这样:我要将我的律法放在他们里面,写在他们心上;我要作他们的 神,他们要作我的子民。他们不用各人教导自己的乡邻和自己的弟兄,说:‘你该认识主;’因为他们从最小的到至大的,都必认识我。我要宽恕他们的不义,不再记念他们的罪愆。”既说新约,就以前约为旧了;但那渐旧渐衰的,就必快归无有了。


来9 原来前约有礼拜的条例和属世界的圣幕。因为有预备的帐幕,头一层叫作圣所,里面有灯台、桌子和陈设饼。第二幔子后又有一层帐幕,叫作至圣所,有金香炉(“炉”或作“坛”),有包金的约柜,柜里有盛吗哪的金罐和亚伦发过芽的杖,并两块约版;柜上面有荣耀基路伯的影罩着施恩座(“施恩”原文作“蔽罪”)。这几件我现在不能一一细说。这些物件既如此预备齐了,众祭司就常进头一层帐幕,行拜 神的礼。至于第二层帐幕,惟有大祭司一年一次独自进去,没有不带着血为自己和百姓的过错献上。圣灵用此指明,头一层帐幕仍存的时候,进入至圣所的路还未显明。那头一层帐幕作现今的一个表样,所献的礼物和祭物,就着良心说,都不能叫礼拜的人得以完全。这些事,连那饮食和诸般洗濯的规矩,都不过是属肉体的条例,命定到振兴的时候为止。但现在基督已经来到,作了将来美事的大祭司,经过那更大更全备的帐幕,不是人手所造,也不是属乎这世界的;并且不用山羊和牛犊的血,乃用自己的血,只一次进入圣所,成了永远赎罪的事。若山羊和公牛的血,并母牛犊的灰,洒在不洁的人身上,尚且叫人成圣,身体洁净;何况基督藉着永远的灵,将自己无瑕无疵献给 神,他的血岂不更能洗净你们的心(原文作“良心”),除去你们的死行,使你们事奉那永生 神吗?为此,他作了新约的中保,既然受死赎了人在前约之时所犯的罪过,便叫蒙召之人得着所应许永远的产业。凡有遗命,必须等到留遗命的人死了(“遗命”原文与“约”字同);因为人死了,遗命才有效力;若留遗命的尚在,那遗命还有用处吗?所以前约也不是不用血立的;因为摩西当日照着律法将各样诫命传给众百姓,就拿朱红色绒和牛膝草,把牛犊山羊的血和水洒在书上,又洒在众百姓身上,说:“这血就是 神与你们立约的凭据。”他又照样把血洒在帐幕和各样器皿上。按着律法,凡物差不多都是用血洁净的,若不流血,罪就不得赦免了。照着天上样式作的物件必须用这些祭物去洁净;但那天上的本物自然当用更美的祭物去洁净。因为基督并不是进了人手所造的圣所(这不过是真圣所的影像),乃是进了天堂,如今为我们显在 神面前;也不是多次将自己献上,象那大祭司每年带着牛羊的血进入圣所(“牛羊的血”原文作“不是自己的血”)。如果这样,他从创世以来,就必多次受苦了;但如今在这末世显现一次,把自己献为祭,好除掉罪。按着定命,人人都有一死,死后且有审判。象这样,基督既然一次被献,担当了多人的罪,将来要向那等候他的人第二次显现,并与罪无关,乃是为拯救他们。


来10 律法既是将来美事的影儿,不是本物的真像,总不能藉着每年常献一样的祭物叫那近前来的人得以完全。若不然,献祭的事岂不早已止住了吗?因为礼拜的人,良心既被洁净,就不再觉得有罪了。但这些祭物是叫人每年想起罪来;因为公牛和山羊的血,断不能除罪。所以,基督到世上来的时候,就说:“ 神啊,祭物和礼物是你不愿意的,你曾给我预备了身体,燔祭和赎罪祭是你不喜欢的。那时我说:‘ 神啊,我来了,为要照你的旨意行;我的事在经卷上已经记载了。’”以上说:“祭物和礼物,燔祭和赎罪祭,是你不愿意的,也是你不喜欢的(这都是按着律法献的)。”后又说:“我来了为要照你的旨意行。”可见他是除去在先的,为要立定在后的。我们凭这旨意,靠耶稣基督只一次献上他的身体,就得以成圣。凡祭司天天站着事奉 神,屡次献上一样的祭物,这祭物永不能除罪。但基督献了一次永远的赎罪祭,就在 神的右边坐下了;从此等候他仇敌成了他的脚凳。因为他一次献祭,便叫那得以成圣的人永远完全。圣灵也对我们作见证;因为他既已说过:“主说:那些日子以后,我与他们所立的约乃是这样:我要将我的律法写在他们心上,又要放在他们的里面。”以后就说:“我不再记念他们的罪愆和他们的过犯。”这些罪过既已赦免,就不用再为罪献祭了。弟兄们,我们既因耶稣的血得以坦然进入至圣所,是藉着他给我们开了一条又新又活的路,从幔子经过,这幔子就是他的身体,又有一位大祭司治理 神的家,并我们心中天良的亏欠已经洒去,身体用清水洗净了,就当存着诚心和充足的信心来到 神面前;也要坚守我们所承认的指望,不至摇动,因为那应许我们的是信实的;又要彼此相顾,激发爱心,勉励行善。你们不可停止聚会,好象那些停止惯了的人,倒要彼此劝勉。既知道(原文作“看见”)那日子临近,就更当如此。因为我们得知真道以后,若故意犯罪,赎罪的祭就再没有了;惟有战惧等候审判和那烧灭众敌人的烈火。人干犯摩西的律法,凭两三个见证人,尚且不得怜恤而死;何况人践踏 神的儿子,将那使他成圣之约的血当作平常,又亵慢施恩的圣灵;你们想,他要受的刑罚该怎样加重呢!因为我们知道谁说:“伸冤在我,我必报应;”又说:“主要审判他的百姓。” 落在永生 神的手里,真是可怕的!你们要追念往日,蒙了光照以后,所忍受大争战的各样苦难:一面被毁谤,遭患难,成了戏景,叫众人观看;一面陪伴那些受这样苦难的人。因为你们体恤了那些被捆锁的人,并且你们的家业被人抢去,也甘心忍受,知道自己有更美长存的家业。所以你们不可丢弃勇敢的心;存这样的心必得大赏赐。你们必须忍耐,使你们行完了 神的旨意,就可以得着所应许的。“因为还有一点点时候,那要来的就来,并不迟延。只是义人必因信得生(“义人”有古卷作“我的义人”),他若退后,我心里就不喜欢他。” 我们却不是退后入沉沦的那等人,乃是有信心以致灵魂得救的人。


来11:13 这些人都是存着信心死的,并没有得着所应许的;却从远处望见,且欢喜迎接,又承认自己在世上是客旅,是寄居的。


加3:7-9 所以你们要知道:那以信为本的人,就是亚伯拉罕的子孙。并且圣经既然预先看明, 神要叫外邦人因信称义,就早已传福音给亚伯拉罕,说:“万国都必因你得福。”可见那以信为本的人和有信心的亚伯拉罕一同得福。


加3:14 这便叫亚伯拉罕的福,因基督耶稣可以临到外邦人,使我们因信得着所应许的圣灵。



Proof Scripture Verses

[126] Romans 15:8. Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers.


[127] Acts 3:20, 24. And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you.... Yea, and all the prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days.


[128] Hebrews 10:1. For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.


[129] Romans 4:11. And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised: that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also.


[130] 1 Corinthians 5:7. Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us.


[131] Hebrews chapters 8, 9, 10 (entire). Hebrews 11:13. These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.


[132] Galatians 3:7-9, 14. Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed. So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham.... That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.


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