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对观福音

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三卷符类福音内容的关係。几乎所有马可福音的内容都被发现在马太路加福音,但后二者的内容则有许多没有在马可福音中发现

符类福音Synoptic Gospels)又称共观福音同观福音对观福音等,为新约圣经前三卷书马太福音马可福音路加福音的合称。这三本福音书的内容、叙事安排、语言和句子结构皆很相似,而它们又以近似的顺序、措辞记述了许多相同的故事。使学者们认为它们有着相当的关联。[1]

英文中的synoptic来自希腊语中的syn,意为「一起的」;而optic则为「相似」之意。[2]

四福音书中的另一卷书「约翰福音」及其它被称为伪典的福音书,与符类福音各方面皆有很大的差异。

书写顺序

因为其相同性,圣经学者持续辩论着符类福音三卷书被书写的顺序。现在有圣奥古斯丁假说双源假说双福音书假说四源假说法拉假说帕克假说六种说法。

传统观点

圣奥古斯丁假说

传统上认为马太福音是首先被书写的、马可福音第二、而路加福音则参考前二者及其他当事人的言语来书写。[3] 这个说法通常被称为圣奥古斯丁假说。[4][5]不像其它的假说,这个假说不被后人引用、不被争论、也几乎没有任何文献提及。圣奥古斯丁的后裔认为是瞭解福音书的一种简单的共识。然而,文字考证证明这是一个错误。因此学术界及大多数现代的研究通常都不再引用此种说法。

历史考证观点

马可福音优先

这一个假说认为,《马可福音》是对观福音书中最早的,也是其他福音书的根据。这个学说起源于18世纪,被现代圣经学者广为接受。

Q来源

双源假说

双源假说推测马太福音在书写时参考了马可福音和另一本同观语录源,或称Q来源。特别是发现了一本皆是语录体的书卷:多马福音,因而更支撑了这个假说。[6]

四源假说

双源假说有个问题,就是它不能说明所有马太福音和路加福音的疑点。在The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (1924)一书中,斯特里特en:Burnett Hillman Streeter)修改了双源假说并提出四源假说。此说解释了双源假说未能交代完善之处,并 假设马太及路加福音书有四个来源。包括一个现存来源:马可福音;及三个未知来源:Q来源、M来源和L。[7] [8]

其他假说

双福音书假说

双福音书假说又称格里斯巴奇假说。此假说认为使徒马太公元40年左右首先书写马太福音,那时基督教只在犹太地区传播。后来教会向外扩张,使徒路加在约公元50年时书写路加福音来向外邦人福音。但由于路加和他的同伴保罗没有亲眼看过耶稣基督,因此引用了圣彼得的言论来描述耶稣的事迹。这些言论先被马可纪录为马可福音,然后寄送给早期教会的领导者爱任纽。这个假说以马可的低曝光率认为马可福音不是正统的福音书。后来保罗让路加福音出版。[9]这个假说,与双源假说相比,有个优势[10][11],因为它所倚靠的都是本身的内部证据,而不需要外部假设如Q来源等。

法拉假说

法拉假说认为马可福音首先写成,第二是马太福音,最后则是路加福音。法拉假说的立场很简单,它没有假设其它来源。它直接认为马可福音是马太福音的来源,而后路加参考这两本书书写了路加福音。[12][13]

帕克假说

皮尔逊.帕克在1953年认为马太福音是其它福音书的基础。

Q来源的问题

儘管双源假说(简称2SH)最被广为接受,但它仍有一些疑点,主要是Q来源的问题。2SH假设存有一份记载了耶稣言行但已亡佚的文件(Q),藉此解释了双重传统。跟马可居先说(马可福音为四福音中最先写成)比较起来,这更是2SH的一个特徵。

在2SH身为最流行的对观福音来源解释的同时,一些次要点上的一致(minor agreement)带来一些关切。所谓次要点上的一致是指某些在马太福音与路加福音中合致的记载与马可福音却不相同。(例如耶稣被打时,有人嘲笑地问祂:"告诉我们打你的是谁?"这段记载在马太福音与路加福音都有出现但未见于马可福音。)这些次要的一致于是被用来质疑马太福音与路加福音都得知马可福音的存在,但马太福音与路加福音却互不知道对方存在的命题。

其次,一个被用在两卷福音书中,如此主要且被重视的资料怎会就这样全然消失了呢?为何Q从来未曾被任何教会记录提及?从耶稣到耶柔米这段时间也未曾有任何学者提到。这些问题被澄清之前,Q一直都会受到怀疑。[14][15][16][17]

争议

虽然许多学者对福音书传统上认为的撰写年代有所争议(在西元40年代到60年代之间),多数人认为对观福音书的年代介于《罗马书》和《约翰福音》之间(即西元60年至115年间)。[18]这项假说由于以推论为基础的论证而尚未获得共识(也就是说「保罗并未提到福音书,所以福音书一定是在《罗马书》以后写的」)。至于每本书的具体撰写日期,这主要得看特定解释福音书文字关係的假说。

主要福音书比较表

本比较表[19] 是来自 B. H. Throckmorton所着的"福音之相似处(Gospel Parallels)"、 R. W. Funk所着之"五福音(The Five Gospels)"、 E. B. Nicholson所着之"希伯来人的福音(The Gospel According to the Hebrews)" 以及J. R. Edwards所着的"希伯来福音与对观福音传统之发展(The Hebrew Gospel and the Development of the Synoptic Tradition)"

项目 马太、马可、路加福音 约翰福音 多马福音 希伯来福音
新约 三福音的中心德目是:全心全意爱主以及你的邻居,像爱自己一般 [20] 中心德目:爱是耶稣所赐的新命令 [21] 奥秘的知识、爱你的朋友 [22] 中心德目:要爱其他人 [23]
饶恕 非常重要,尤其在马太福音与路加福音 [24] 推定有 [25] 未提及 非常重要:饶恕是中心思想,而且这份福音书有最详细的记载 [26]
主祷文 在马太福音与路加福音皆有记载,但未见于马可福音 [27] 未提及 未提及 重要:有关于"mahar"或 "明天"的记载 [28][29]
爱与穷人 非常重要,见耶稣与富有的少年人 [30] 推定有 [31] 重要 [32] 非常重要,见耶稣与富有的少年人 [33]
耶稣开始祂的工作 耶稣遇见施洗约翰,并且受洗 [34] 耶稣遇见施洗约翰 [35] 只提到施洗约翰[36] 有对于耶稣与施洗约翰相遇并受洗的最详尽记载 [37]
门徒的数量 十二 [38] 十二 [39] 未提及 [40] 十二 [41]
核心门徒 彼得安德烈雅各约翰 [38] 彼得、安德烈、雅各以及耶稣所爱的那门徒 [39] 彼得 [40] 彼得、安德烈、雅各与约翰 [37]
其他的门徒

腓力巴多罗买税吏马太多马亚勒腓的儿子雅各达太(亦称雅各的儿子(或兄弟)犹大)奋锐党的西门加略人犹大 [39]

腓力、拿但业(即巴多罗买)、税吏马太、多马、亚勒腓的儿子雅各、达太(雅各的儿子(或兄弟)犹大)、奋锐党的西门,加略人犹大 [39]

马太、多马与耶稣的兄弟犹大 [42]

马太、耶稣的兄弟犹大、奋锐党的西门、达太、加略人犹大 [43]

可能的作者 福音书的作者马太(Matthew);[44] 福音书的作者马可(Mark) & 福音书的作者路加(Luke 耶稣所爱的那门徒 [45] 多马 [46] 福音书的作者马太 [47]
对处女怀胎的叙述 马太福音与路加福音有,但马可福音没有 [48] 未提及 未提及 未提及
耶稣的洗礼 皆有叙述 [27] 未提及 [27] 有详实的记述 [49]
传道方式 简短的俏皮话或比喻 [27] 散文格式、米大示(en:Midrash[27] 言论与比喻 [50] 简短的俏皮话与比喻 [27]
讲故事 比喻 [51] 比喻性的措词或隐喻 [52] 诺斯底主义、神秘的比喻 [53] 比喻 [54]
耶稣的神学 一世纪的自由主义犹太教 [55] 对犹太教权威的批判 [56] 诺斯底主义 [27] 一世纪犹太教 [55]
神蹟 很多神蹟 七个神蹟Seven Signs 较少但较可信的神蹟 [57]
传道期间 一年 [58] 三年(多次提到逾越节) 一年 [58]
传道地点 主要在加利利 主要在靠近耶路撒冷的犹太地区 主要在加利利
逾越节晚餐 身体与血等于饼与酒 为了洗脚中断了晚餐 有庆祝希伯来逾越节但无细节 [59]
葬礼的裹尸布 一块布 多块布 [60] 给了大祭司 [61]
复活 马利亚和妇女们首先得知耶稣复活 [62] 约翰增添了一些马利亚在复活事件中的细节描述 [63] 多马福音记载的是耶稣的"言论"而非耶稣的一生 特别提到耶稣向祂的兄弟犹大显现[64],这事同时也记载在哥林多前书15章7节

参考资料

Template:Reflist

  1. F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingston, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 1989 p. 1333
  2. Template:OED
  3. Ronald Allen Piper, The gospel behind the Gospels: current studies on Q, Volume 75 of Novum Testamentum, BRILL, 1995 p.23
  4. Black, David (2001). Why Four Gospels?. Kregel Publications. ISBN 0-8254-2070-9
  5. Beck, David (2001). Rethinking the Synoptic Problem. Baker Academic. ISBN 0-8010-2281-9.
  6. Daniel Gaztambide, "The Synoptic Problem: Two-Source Hypothesis and Q", AramaicNT.org, accessed August 19, 2006.
  7. http://www.katapi.org.uk/4Gospels/Ch9.htm
  8. Streeter, Burnett H. The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins Treating the Manuscript Tradition, Sources, Authorship, & Dates. London: MacMillian and Co., Ltd., 1924.
  9. Black, David (2001). Why Four Gospels?. Kregel Publications. ISBN 0-8254-2070-9
  10. Black, David (2001). Why Four Gospels?. Kregel Publications. ISBN 0-8254-2070-9
  11. Beck, David (2001). Rethinking the Synoptic Problem. Baker Academic. ISBN 0-8010-2281-9.
  12. D. E. Nineham (ed.), Studies in the Gospels: Essays in Memory of R. H. Lightfoot (Oxford: Blackwell, 1955)
  13. Austin Farrer, On Dispensing With Q, 1955.
  14. Pier Franco Beatrice, The Gospel according to the Hebrews in the Apostolic Fathers, Novum Testamentum, 2006, vol. 48, no2, pp. 147-195 ISSN 0048-1009
  15. James R. Edwards, The Hebrew Gospel & the Development of the Synoptic Tradition, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2009 pp. 209 - 247
  16. Martin Hengel, The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ Trinity Press, SCM 2000 p.207- 210
  17. Mark Goodacre. Ten Reasons to Question Q. The Case Against Q website. 10 January 2003 [2009-06-08]. 
  18. Geza Vermes, The Passion, (Penguin, 2005) pages 10-12.
  19. See Chart
  20. "In the Synoptic Gospels this is the "Greatest" Commandment" that sums up all of the "Law and the Prophets"
  21. Jn 31:34
  22. Log 25
  23. The Lord says to his disciples: ”And never be you joyful, except when you behold one another with love.” Jerome, Commentary on Ephesians
  24. Matt 18:21, Lk 17:4
  25. Jn 20:23
  26. In the Gospel of the Hebrews, written in the Chaldee and Syriac language but in Hebrew script, and used by the Nazarenes to this day (I mean the Gospel of the Apostles, or, as it is generally maintained, the Gospel of Matthew, a copy of which is in the library at Caesarea), we find, “Behold the mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, ‘John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins. Let us go and be baptized by him.’ But Jesus said to them, ‘in what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance.’” And in the same volume, “‘If your brother sins against you in word, and makes amends, forgive him seven times a day.’ Simon, His disciple, said to Him, ‘Seven times in a day!’ The Lord answered and said to him, ‘I say to you, Seventy times seven.’ ” Jerome, Against Pelagius 3.2
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 Trite
  28. In the so-called Gospel of the Hebrews, for “bread essential to existence,” I found “mahar”, which means “of tomorrow”; so the sense is: our bread for tomorrow, that is, of the future, give us this day. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 1
  29. In Matthew's Hebrew Gospel it states, ‘Give us this day our bread for tomorrow.” Jerome, On Psalm 135
  30. Matt 19:16, Mk 10:17 & Lk1 8:18
  31. Jn 12:8
  32. Jesus said "Blessed are the poor, for to you belongs the Kingdom of Heaven" Log 54
  33. The second rich youth said to him, “Rabbi, what good thing can I do and live?” Jesus replied, “Fulfill the law and the prophets.” “I have,” was the response. Jesus said, “Go, sell all that you have and distribute to the poor; and come, follow me.” The youth became uncomfortable, for it did not please him. And the Lord said, “How can you say, I have fulfilled the Law and the Prophets, when it is written in the Law: You shall love your neighbor as yourself and many of your brothers, sons of Abraham, are covered with filth, dying of hunger, and your house is full of many good things, none of which goes out to them?” And he turned and said to Simon, his disciple, who was sitting by Him, “Simon, son of Jonah, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. ”Origen, Commentary on Matthew 15:14
  34. Matt 3:1, Mk 1:9, 3:21
  35. Jn 1:29
  36. Gospel of Thomas, Logion 46: Jesus said, "From Adam to John the Baptist, among those born to women, no one is greater than John the Baptist that his eyes should not be averted. But I have said that whoever among you becomes a child will recognize the (Father's) kingdom and will become greater than John."
  37. 37.0 37.1 Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  38. 38.0 38.1 Matt 10:1, Mk 6:8, Lk 9:3
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 Jn 13:23, 19:26, 20:2, 21:7, 21:20
  40. 40.0 40.1 Log 13
  41. “There was a certain man named Jesus, about thirty years old, who chose us. Coming to Capernaum, He entered the house of Simon, who is called Peter, and said, ‘As I passed by the Sea of Galilee, I chose John and James, sons of Zebedee, and Simon, and Andrew, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas Iscariot; and you Matthew, sitting at the tax office, I called and you followed me. You therefore, I want to be the Twelve, to symbolize Israel.’”Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  42. Log 1- 114
  43. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13, Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  44. Although several Fathers say Matthew wrote the Gospel of the Hebrews they are silent about Greek Matthew found in the Bible. Modern scholars are in agreement that Matthew did not write Greek Matthews which is 300 lines longer than the Hebrew Gospel (See James Edwards the Hebrew gospel)
  45. Suggested by Irenaeus first
  46. Preface to the Gospel of Thomas
  47. They too accept Matthew's gospel, and like the followers of Cerinthus and Merinthus, they use it alone. They call it the Gospel of the Hebrews, for in truth Matthew alone in the New Testament expounded and declared the Gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:3
  48. Matt 1:18
  49. “After the people were baptized, Jesus also came and was baptized by John. As Jesus came up from the water, Heaven was opened, and He saw the Holy Spirit descend in the form of a dove and enter into him. And a voice from Heaven said, ‘You are my beloved Son; with You I am well pleased.’ And again, ‘Today I have begotten you.’ “Immediately a great light shone around the place; and John, seeing it, said to him, ‘Who are you, Lord?' And again a voice from Heaven said, ‘This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.’ Then John, falling down before Him, said, ‘I beseech You, Lord, baptize me!’ But Jesus forbade him saying, ‘Let it be so as it is fitting that all things be fulfilled.’” Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  50. Jesus said, "The (Father's) kingdom is like a shepherd who had a hundred sheep. One of them, the largest, went astray. He left the ninety-nine and looked for the one until he found it. After he had toiled, he said to the sheep, 'I love you more than the ninety-nine.'" Log 107
  51. Parables
  52. Language in the Gospel of John
  53. Log 109
  54. Parables of Jesus
  55. 55.0 55.1 Similar to beliefs taught by Hillel the Elder. (eg. "golden rule")Hillel Hillel the Elder
  56. Jn 7:45 & Jn 3:1
  57. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 2
  58. 58.0 58.1 Events leading up to Passover
  59. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:22
  60. As was the Jewish practice at the time. (John 20:5-7)
  61. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  62. Matt 28:1 Mk16:1 Lk24:1
  63. Jn 20:11
  64. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2