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- 简体网址：David Jang Second Coming Christ/zh-CN （二审中）
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- 翻译网址：David Jang Second Coming Christ
This article first published in Christianity Today. Used by permission. Copyright Christianity Today International.
The authors are: Ted Olsen and Ken Smith.
Original English article link: http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2012/september/david-jang-second-coming-christ.html . (本文由今日基督教发表。蒙准许使用。版权属于“今日基督教国际”，作者：泰德·奥尔森(Ted Olsen)和肯·斯密斯(Ken Smith)，英文原文网址 http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2012/september/david-jang-second-coming-christ.html )
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The Second Coming Christ Controversy
David Jang has become an increasingly influential figure in Asian and now American evangelicalism. He and his followers have founded media outlets and a Christian college and are key influencers in the World Evangelical Alliance. But many say he leads a group that has encouraged the belief that he’s the ‘Second Coming Christ.’ Is there any truth to the allegations? Ted Olsen and Ken Smith
Ted Olsen is CT's managing editor, news and online journalism. Ken Smith is an independent journalist based in Washington State.
在亚洲甚至现在的美国基督教福音派中，张大卫(David Jang)的影响力与日俱增。他和他的追随者们成立了多个媒体管道和基督教学院，并且成为了世界福 音联盟（World Evangelical Alliance）的关键影响因素。然而，很多人认为他带领了一个致力于相信他就是“再来基督”的小组。这些指控到底是真是假？
泰德·奥尔森(Ted Olsen)是今日基督教的主编，新闻和在线记者。肯·斯密斯（Ken Smith）是华盛顿州的独立记者。
Glorieta Conference Center, owned by the Southern Baptist Convention's LifeWay Christian Resources, is one of the largest and best-known Christian conference facilities in the country, sitting on 2,100 acres near Santa Fe, New Mexico. But for 24 of the last 25 years it has drained money from the organization.
"There's just not a demand for the kinds of things that we do and used to do at Glorieta," said LifeWay spokesman Marty King. So, last September, LifeWay's trustees decided to investigate selling the campus. The plan was to sell to the Baptist Convention of New Mexico for the nominal price of $1. However, the convention said the cost of upgrading Glorieta and potential environmental liability made acquisition unattractive.
Then came an offer from San Francisco–based Olivet University. (The school has no connection to Illinois-based Olivet Nazarene University.) The school, founded by Korean pastor David Jang in 1992, has several affiliate ministries and Internet businesses that reportedly helped it to raise enough funds to buy and run the Glorieta campus.
The bad news for LifeWay was that Jang is a controversial figure who, according to credible reports, has been hailed by some of his followers as the "Second Coming Christ."
Over the last five years, ministries and organizations founded by or connected to Jang have gained influence in American and global evangelical ministries, including the World Evangelical Alliance. Yet in the same period, a number of mainstream Christian organizations in Korea and China have severed relationships with his affiliated organizations after investigating such claims and finding them credible. Other groups have reconfirmed their ties after their investigations cleared him. Now, as Jang's businesses and ministries have sought greater recognition and expansion in the United States, Christian leaders and ministries here are asking similar questions about Jang, his affiliated organizations, and their theology.
The 'Second Coming Christ'
The details of Jang's early life are in question, and multiple efforts to contact him for this story's publication were unsuccessful. Critics in Korea, Japan, and China say he was involved in Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church. They point to his appearance in a 1989 student handbook for Moon's Sung Hwa Theological Seminary as an assistant professor of theology, teaching systematic theology and Unification theology. They also cite a 2002 history of Sun Moon University praising him for helping to fund the school. Jang's defenders, on the other hand, say the critics have fabricated evidence and that Jang merely joined an anti-Communist club that also included Unification Church members.
News N Joy, a Korean Christian website, reported in 2004 that it had four conversations with Jang about his career in the Unification Church after Jang objected to one of the site's articles. In the interview, Jang said the description in the Sun Moon University history book was inaccurate, but acknowledged that he had worked for the school until 1995 (he did not officially resign until 1998). "He explained that the reason he was involved in Sun Moon University was to teach orthodox theology to Unification Church members," the site reported. "In addition, he added that he led a lot of deluded people to the way of truth."
Both sides agree that Jang has long had more orthodox ties. According to a résumé Jang submitted to the Christian Council of Korea, he received his M.Div. from Hanshin University in 1990 and a Ph.D. from Dankook University in 1992. That same year, he was ordained as a Korean Presbyterian minister, and by 1999 he was moderator of the Hang Dong Presbytery.
这部分由 Michael HUO 弟兄 和 Linda Zhou 姊妹共同翻译
坐落在新墨西哥州圣达菲（Santa Fe）附近，有近2100英亩大小的格洛列塔（Glorieta ）会议中心，是美国最大且是最著名的基督徒会议中心之一。它曾经属于美南浸信会（Southern Baptist Convention）的生命路基督徒资源中心（LifeWay Christian Resources）。然而在过去的25年中有24年都从该组织汲取经费。
由Southern Baptist Convention's LifeWay Christian Resources管理的Glorieta Conference Center是国内首屈一指的基督议会。占地2100英亩（约合8 498 398.5平方米），坐落于墨西哥Santa Fe附近。
现在人们对于我们以前和现在所做的事没有需求” LifeWay的发言人Marty King说道。所以，去年9月，LifeWay的信徒决定调查出售园区的计划。这个计划是旨在以1美元的名义价格将园区卖给墨西哥浸礼会。但是浸礼会表示改造Glorieta的费用和潜在的环境责任使得这个并购不那么有吸引力
后来一个邀约来了，是来了一个来自旧金山的奥立佛大学(Olivet University)。（该学校跟伊利诺伊斯的奥立佛拿撒勒大学（Olivet Nazarene University）没有任何联系）【译注：奥立佛大学(Olivet University)中港韩称其为 伟仁大学】。这个学校是在1992年的时候由韩国牧师张大卫(David Jang)建立的，且它已经有多个附属的事工和互联网企业。据报道后者用于帮助积累资金以便于购买并启用格洛列塔（Glorieta）园区。
随后在圣弗朗西斯科的Olivet大学（Olivet大学与伊利诺斯的Olivet Nazarene大学无关）表示了购入的意愿。Olivet大学是由牧师张大卫（David Jang）在1992年创建的，拥有数个部门和国际商业业务，而这些业务被称能够帮助募集到足以购买运营Glorieta园区（campus）的经费。
在过去5年中，与张大卫（David Jang）相关的创建的机构和组织在美国和世界福音组织的影响不断加强，这其中还包括世界福音联盟。但是同时，中国和韩国一部分主流基督团体组织在调查后相继与其相关的组织拒绝往来。其他的一些组织在调查后又重新确认了与其组织的关系。如今，当张大卫（David Jang）相关的商业和组织行为在美国得到认可和扩张，美国的基督也要向其附庸组织和教义同样发问。
张大卫（David Jang）的拥护者却说那些评论家实则编造了张大卫（David Jang）的早期活动，他只是参与了是统一教成员的反共社团。名为News N Joy的韩国基督教网站在2004年报道了与张关于在统一教职责的四次对话，其中有一篇被张拒绝发表。在访谈中，张大卫（David Jang）说关于他在鲜文大学（Sun Moon University）中职责的报道是不准确的，但是他证实了自己直到1995年都在学校任职的事实（1998年正式辞职）。News N Joy报道说张大卫（David Jang）对此的解释是他当时的职责是向学校教会委员传授正教神学。并且，他还宣称自己帮着过很多人走上了真理之路。
But according to several sources with experience in Jang-associated organizations and communities, many members of the movement believed that the key event in Jang's early missionary endeavors is not in his résumé—nor, indeed, in any written source. It was believed, these sources said, that in or around 1992, early follower Borah Lin told Jang that she believed he was the "Second Coming Christ"—not Jesus Christ himself, but rather a new messianic figure that would complete Jesus' earthly mission. According to several former members, Lin became an important spiritual figure in Jang's closest circles.
Documents from teaching sessions indicate that Jang and his followers look to October 30, 1992—Jang's 43rd birthday—as the precise date of the start of their own movement. Beyond that, affiliated groups including Apostolos Campus Ministries and Olivet University look to 1992 as the year of their founding.
The years that followed were busy, as Jang recruited followers and commissioned missionaries to work on college campuses throughout Asia. The first missionaries to China arrived in 1996 and formed the core of the Young Disciples of Jesus. The Christian Post and Christian Today have dated their founding to 2000 (on its website, The Christian Post recently changed the founding date to 2004). The Gospel Herald and the American body of the Evangelical Assembly of Presbyterian Churches (EAPC) launched in 2004, and the International Business Times in 2006. By 2002, Jang had recruited adherents in key cities throughout China, Japan, and Korea, and had begun expanding into the United States.
In a paper written for the Evangelical Missiological Society in 2008, Olivet University president William Wagner wrote, "[M]inistries created by the Olivet movement occupy four of the top-ten ranked Christian websites in the United States—including the position of number one … . [M]arkedly successful websites produced by Olivet College of Journalism affiliate ministries have been developed in over 40 languages around the world … . In almost every case, these websites are top-ranked in their countries of origin." In addition to the businesses and ministries listed above, Wagner included organizations such as Crossmap, Verecom, IB Spot, Deographics, Jubilee Mission, BREATHEcast, Good News Line, Bible Portal, and the World Evangelical Theological Institute Association as "affiliate ministries" of Olivet University.
In a May 2008 interview with Christianity Today, Wagner said Jang worked with college students to "target top universities"—especially those in the University of California system—to build the student body at Olivet through transfers. Wagner said Apostolos Campus Ministries (since renamed Apostolos Missions) at the time had more than 30,000 students in 120 countries. That number didn't include another 10,000 students in China, where the organization is known as Young Disciples of Jesus.
These campus ministries would approach students who seemed to be interested in Bible studies and encourage them to take a course of 40 private "history lessons." (Wagner characterized them as intensive courses in discipleship and leadership.) Former members say that it was generally believed that these lessons had originated with Jang himself.
但是根据张大卫（David Jang）组织和社区有关的一些人表示，许多参与到此组织的会员相信，张大卫（David Jang）早期对事工的努力并不包含在他的简历中。这些人相信，于1992年左右的时间里，一位名叫林宝拉（Borah Lin）的张大卫（David Jang）早期跟随者告诉张大卫（David Jang），她认为张大卫（David Jang）是“再临基督”——不是耶稣基督本身，而是一个新的救赎者，来完成耶稣在地球上未完成的事工。相关组织的原成员说，林宝拉（Borah Lin）在张大卫（David Jang）密友圈中成为了重要的属灵人物。
相关教学资料显示，张大卫（David Jang）和他的追随者们将1992年10月30日——张大卫（David Jang）43岁生日那天定为这个组织的发起日。不仅如此，相关组织包括使徒校园事工（Apostolos Campus Ministries）和伟仁大学（Olivet University）也将1992年作为他们的创始日。
后面的几年中对于张大卫（David Jang）的团队而言是十分忙碌的。张大卫（David Jang）开始招募信徒并委任相关宣教士用以在亚洲各地的高校内工作。1996年，第一批宣教士登陆中国，并创办了耶稣青年会。基督邮报和今日基督教报将耶青的创始日定为2000年（目前，基督邮报在其网站上将耶青的创始日定为2004年）。在2004年，旗下的基督日报（Gospel Herald）和美国福音派长老会（EAPC）创建完毕。在2006年，旗下的国际商业时报（International Business Times）也由张大卫（David Jang）资助的耶稣青年会创建完毕。早在2002年，张大卫（David Jang）就已在中国、日本和韩国的主要城市里建立起了自己的信徒圈，并开始将这个圈子扩大到美国。
在2008年，伟仁大学校长威廉•瓦格纳（William Wagner）在一份递交给福音宣教协会的文章中称：“伟仁大学所创办的事工网站中，有四个网站居于美国基督教网站的前十，其中还包括一个位列第一的网站……其中，最瞩目的网站非新闻网站莫属。这些网站是在伟仁新闻学院旗下所建立的，并在全球40多个国家建立了当地语言的网站……在大多数情况下，这些网站在当地都已达到了顶尖水平。”在以上所提到的事工之外，瓦格纳还提到了诸如基督时代（Crossmap），万锐科（Verecom），IB Spot，伟联时代（Deographics），禧年事工（Jubilee Mission），BREATHcast，好消息在线（Good News Online），圣经门户（Bible Portal）和伟仁大学“旗下”的世界福音派神学院协会（World Evangelical Theological Institute Association）。
中文 由Jian G.Goodall翻译 语桥翻译团审阅
"These messages," a former student of the lessons in the United States said he was told about a decade ago, "are so precious that we can't give them out to just anyone, even other Christians." The lessons were only given by senior members of the community, former members said, and sometimes the final key lessons would be given by Lin herself.
What unites the movement? 'One is God,' said Olivet president William Wagner. 'But another is the spiritual leader; he's the one that has tied it all together. He had the vision for Olivet.'
The precise goal of these lessons is in dispute. Several former members of the Jang-affiliated groups told CT the lessons seemed to be designed to lead new members to a confession that Jang was the "Second Coming Christ," though such a goal was never stated outright by the instructors.
"There were many obvious implied hints for getting people to confess," said a former member of the movement in China. "As one brother said, 'As long as you're not a fool, you can use logic to hint and imply.' But no one said directly in the sermons that 'Pastor David Jang is the Returning Lord.' Usually, even in private, this will not be mentioned. It seems to be top secret."
Former member Ma Li, who says she began the lessons in China in 2002, said that when she finished, her instructor looked at her and another new member very seriously and asked, "Have you understood? All the content?"
"I answered firmly: 'Yes,'" she said. "Then she asked me separately: 'Who is Pastor David?' I answered without thinking, just followed what I heard just now and answered: 'The Second Coming Christ!' She said, 'Shhh,' calmly, and then, 'Don't tell others.'"
A former member of the U.S. branch of the movement described a similar experience:
When [my teacher] asked me, "Who do you think Pastor David is?" I was very shocked, and didn't know how to respond. At the time, I shed tears, because I didn't believe what I was hearing. I was so shocked. But then a thought crossed my mind, and I asked, "Is he the Second Coming Christ?" Because I wanted to test to see how they responded to that. But [his] response was even more surprising. "You've made a confession now." So I decided to play along with it for a while. But then he went around telling all the other leaders that I had confessed.
A Central Conviction?
While all of the former members interviewed by CT agreed that some people in the movement believe that Jang is the Second Coming Christ, they disagreed on how central this is to the group's religious identity.
One former member from the U.S. said, "It was never explicitly taught that Jang is the Second Coming of Christ or even a key eschatological figure. If that was ever stated, it was stated as a belief by those who believed. [But] the way eschatology was taught, one could easily come to that conclusion." In fact, the same member did come to that conclusion and acknowledged that for a time, he too believed that Jang was the Second Coming Christ. He believed it, he said, "not because it was taught to me, but because there was at the time, in my mind, a fairly compelling case for the possibility. Now, of course—and for several years—I believe this not to be true. Though [Jang] is admittedly further along in many areas than other Christian leaders and pastors, I find his flaws to be too significant to ignore."
是什么团结一些运动？ “其中一个是上帝” 伟仁（Olivet）大学主席威廉•瓦格纳（ William Wagner）如是说，“但是另一个是精神领袖，是他把我们团结在一起，那应该是Olivet” 这些课程的意图还有待商讨。一些在张大卫相关组织中任职的会员告诉今日基督（CT）这些课程像是为了让新成员承认张大卫（David Jang）是再来基督（"Second Coming Christ,"）而设置的。虽然这样的目的从未得到课程指导的公开承认。
显然，有很多引导大家承认张大卫（David Jang）是再来基督（"Second Coming Christ,"）线索，以为前在中国宣传的会员说道“就想一位兄弟说的只要你不是傻瓜，你就可以用逻辑和暗示推断，但是没有人在讲经的时候直说他是再来基督的事。而且，私下也不这么说。这似乎是个头等秘密”。
by linda zhou
Another former member who came to the United States from China said that in the near decade he spent with the group, he had never been taught directly that Jang was the Second Coming Christ. On several occasions stretching back to 2003, he said he even heard Jang firmly deny that he was the Christ: "He always said those who said 'he is Christ' were insane."
According to documents sent to CT by Olivet officials and other Jang associates, Jang issued this denial in 2008:
A Note About Our Sources
Because CT is committed to transparency and verifiability in its reporting, we attempt to limit the use of anonymous sources except as a last resort or when identifying the source puts them at risk. For this story, we found evidence that our sources could face retaliation for speaking to CT about their experiences. These sources, all from the United States or China, gave evidence that they had been part of David Jang's organizations, ministries, or businesses, and some served in senior positions. They independently offered similar and mutually confirming explanations of the movement's eschatology, history, organizational structure, practices, and personnel. Where their accounts differ, we have noted it in the story. Most of our anonymous sources are speaking about their experience for the first time and did not serve as witnesses in the earlier inquiries in Asia.
I give praises for the grace of Jesus Christ. By the grace of Jesus Christ, I accepted Jesus as my one and only Savior, and since I was forgiven of my sins, I have never abandoned faith in Jesus Christ. Also, I have never preached any other gospel other than that of Jesus Christ. Furthermore I have never taught that I am Christ. I clearly confess that there is no other way than through Jesus Christ to receive salvation and gain freedom.
Chris Lee, a pastor at Immanuel Community Church in New York City (the flagship church of the EAPC in the United States), likewise issued a blanket denial that Jang had ever claimed to be the Second Coming Christ.
But several former members who spoke to CT found it implausible that Jang had no connections to the confessions that he was the Second Coming Christ. One said that for several years around 2002 or 2003, it was the tradition for those who had just made the "confession" to write it out and send it to Jang.
One former leader from China said that only the most senior and trusted leaders were allowed to give the eschatology lessons, and that Jang specifically denied ever teaching it.
"During a fierce debate, Pastor David Jang stood up and said that he had never taught that he is 'the Returning Lord.' The problem was that students did not know whether he had taught it or not. But it was a truth within the community. This teaching had been long preached. It was even a condition for joining the group."
A former member from Shanghai said that Jang indirectly encouraged the teaching in a sermon less than a decade ago by claiming that his relationship with Jesus was the same as the relationship between John the Baptist and Elijah, and that he would finish the work that Jesus left incomplete.
根据 olivet官员和张的合作伙伴递送给CT的文件，张已经在2008年提出这项否决。 请见这条我们提供的消息：
这些消息，都来自于美国和中国，有证据表明他们过去参与了一部分张大卫的组织，事工，或者企业， 还有一些担任过高级职位。 他们各自提供了类似的，却能相互证实和解释的证据，包括该活动团体的末世论、历史、组织结构、行为和人员。
Chris Lee, 一位在纽约市伊曼努尔社区教堂的牧师（美国EAPC第一流的教堂），同样发布了一条信息否认张曾声称自己是基督第二次降临。
However, none of the former members CT talked to heard Jang claim to be the Second Coming Christ. Nor do any of the more than 20 online accounts supposedly written by former members of Jang's organizations (which CT is not including in this report because their authenticity could not be verified) allege that Jang himself made this claim.
Despite the group's reported efforts to keep their lessons private, partial contents of two sets of notes taken by members during training sessions have been made public.
Makoto Yamaya, a Salvation Army official in Tokyo, has been writing critically about Jang and his organizations on his blog since 2006. Shortly after Yamaya began blogging, he told CT, he was contacted by a couple whose son, Munenori Kitamura, had gone missing. They had tried to get him to leave Jang's EAPC and the Jang-owned companies he worked for, but he apparently had abandoned the apartment they had set up for him, leaving behind several months' unpaid rent. Kitamura also left behind documents about the EAPC and several pages of "Bible Lecture Notes."
'She asked me separately: "Who is Pastor David?" I answered without thinking, just followed what I heard just now and answered: "The Second Coming Christ!" She said, "Shhh," calmly, and then, "Don't tell others."'
In the documents provided to CT by Olivet, Kitamura seemed to acknowledge that the notes were his, but explained, "While I am listening to messages, I am used to write down some counterheretical remarks as a comparison to the general teachings, it is a very good opportunity for me to learn about the falsities and contradictions in heretical doctrines."
Meanwhile, Ma Li kept notes she says she took during her lessons in China and turned them over to a group of Chinese critics of the movement. The two independent sets of notes correspond extensively, and several former members from the United States and China have independently confirmed that many of the movement's members were in fact exposed to the teaching that the notes contain. But one former member, who appeared to be familiar with only the set of Japanese notes, said that it "does not accurately reflect what the large majority believe." It only represents one strand of the community, he said.
The basic content of these messages, both as contained in the notes and as described by former members, bears similarities to the teachings of Sun Myung Moon—that Jesus' work was left unfinished and in need of another "Christ" to complete it. Daniel 12 records a notoriously ambiguous prophecy that refers to 1,260 days ("a time, times and half a time"), "1,290 days," and then finally to "1,335 days." The 1,260 days, the notes say, finished when Jesus was born, and the 1,290 days were completed when Jesus began to preach and teach publicly at 30 years of age (1,260 + 30 = 1,290). His three-year public ministry, they say, advanced the prophecy of 1,290 days to 1,293 days, but because the Cross cut his mission short, Jesus did not fulfill the prophecy of the 1,335 days. There is thus a remaining gap of some 42 "days," which were said to symbolize 42 years. Multiple sources said that this 42-year gap was believed to have been fulfilled by Jang.
The lessons also taught a doctrine of "three Israels." The first was a national Israel, the second was composed of Christians, and the third was constituted by the movement Jang had founded. The 144,000 of Revelation 7 was said to refer to this "third Israel," and the Lamb who redeemed them was said to be "not Jesus, but the Christ of the Second Coming."
Closely associated with this idea of Jang's followers as the "third Israel" is a distinction between the "gospel of parables" that Jesus taught and the "eternal gospel" delivered to Jang. One of the lessons said, "Jesus speaks in parables to preach to us, but to the new era, the gospel will be explained more clearly, that is, the everlasting Gospel." This "everlasting Gospel" will be proclaimed by the Second Coming Christ.
A former member from the United States said that Lin finished her lessons with similar teachings. Among them: "Isn't the kingdom of God the body of Christ? So if someone were to create this body, if they were to start it, wouldn't it make sense to say that this is the Second Coming? And isn't it right to say that the one who does this is the Second Coming Christ?"
Controversy and Consequences
As more people learned of the teachings and Jang's influence on companies, ministries, and media, criticism mushroomed. Posts on Japanese and Chinese Internet bulletin boards warned that the Young Disciples of Jesus was teaching that Jang was the Second Coming Christ, isolating followers from their families, requiring them to donate large amounts of money, encouraging them to lie, and demanding strict secrecy. Similar reports appeared on English-language websites.
These reports led to a number of separate investigations throughout Asia. In 2008, a formal Independent Enquiry Committee based out of Hong Kong, led by a blue-ribbon panel of Chinese evangelical theologians, "unanimously expressed its serious apprehensions and concerns" about the group. The panel said it "could not exclude the … strong probabilities" that the Young Disciples of Jesus "promoted doctrines similar to that of Unification Church, including (1) the first coming of Jesus to the earth was a failure and (2) their pastor is the 'Second Coming Lord' or 'Second Coming Christ.'" The conclusion was signed by 13 well-known Asian theologians and church leaders, including Carver Yu, the president of China Graduate School of Theology, and Rudolf Mak, then Chinese Church Mobilization Director for OMF International.
(The response documents Olivet and Christian Post officials sent to Christianity Today rejected the Hong Kong report as containing "repeated and ungrounded claims," and said it never proved that its witnesses or lecture notes were from Young Disciples. Yu and Mak, meanwhile, told CT that their concerns with Jang and his movement have only grown since the report was issued.)
Following the release of the Hong Kong report, the Beijing Haidian Christian Church, one of the largest churches in Beijing, issued a statement terminating their relationship with the Young Disciples, removing any members from leadership positions in the church, and prohibiting them from seeking membership or baptism. Similarly, two of the largest Korean denominations (both Presbyterian) launched a joint investigation, and in September 2009 both the PCK-TongHap and PCK-HapShin denominations voted to break relations with Jang's organizations.
与这些报道随之而来的是亚洲地区大量独立的调查。在2008年，一批优秀的中国福音派人士在香港成立了独立调查委员会（Independent Enquiry Committee），委员们一致表示了他们的担忧。委员会说“耶稣年轻门徒很有可能宣传与统一教会一样的教义，包括：（1）耶稣第一次来到是失败的（2）他们的牧师是‘再来基督’”这个结论是由13个知名亚洲神学家得出的，其中包括Carver Yu和Rudolf Mak。
伟仁大学（Olivet）和《基督徒邮报》（Christian Post）寄给《今日基督》了其回复文件，反对香港对其的报道中并称报道中含有“重复且没有根据的论调”并且这些论调也不能被亲历者或者年轻门徒（Young Disciples）所证实。同时，Carver Yu和Rudolf Mak告诉《今日基督》他们的担忧随着报道课刊登而增加。
by Linda ZHOU
The Christian Council of Korea (CCK), a member of the World Evangelical Alliance, came to a different conclusion.
A representative of the CCK who declined to be identified by name said that the organization had conducted four different "studies" of Jang since 2004, and that each had exonerated him. "The conclusion of each study is that he is innocent, not guilty."
Sam Kyung Chae, a member of the CCK's Heresy Investigation Committee, disputed the characterization of the investigations as having conclusively proven Jang's orthodoxy. In 2008, he and two other members of the committee wrote to clarify the committee's statement that it "was not able to find any suspicions that David Jang had any involvement with Unification Church since 1997."
"First, he had involvements with Unification Church before 1997," the three committee members wrote. "Second, it does not mean David Jang had no heretic convictions. Therefore, it is not right for him to misuse the decision of the committee to prove his non-involvement with cultic doctrines."
In an interview with CT, Chae acknowledged that in December 2010 the CCK Heresy Investigation Committee announced that "there is no evidence in regards to the doubts associated with Rev. Jang and the Second Coming of Christ and it is untrue, and Rev. Jang is not at all related to the nature of heresy." The documents sent to CT from Olivet also included letters from the CCK stating that an executive committee accepted the findings. But Chae says the "executive committees of a general assembly" rejected the report.
The CCK's report and subsequent fights (some over Jang, some on other issues) have split the umbrella group. More than 20 denominations have broken away to form the Communion of Churches in Korea (CCIK). That group plans to launch a new investigation on Jang, his influence, and his theology.
Teaching on Hold
Whatever their result, the investigations and the publicity they brought resulted in a number of changes within the movement, former members told CT. Chief among these was that Jang directed them to stop teaching the controversial eschatology messages that had implied he was the Second Coming Christ.
'By the grace of Jesus Christ, I accepted Jesus as my one and only Savior, and since I was forgiven of my sins, I have never abandoned faith in Jesus Christ. Also, I have never preached any other gospel other than that of Jesus Christ. Furthermore I have never taught that I am Christ.' ~ David Jang
"Once, almost every committed member in the group had to agree David Jang was the 'Second Coming Christ' before he or she could be accepted and put in an important position," a former senior member from China told CT. "Right now, such teaching is stopped. As far as I know, they really stopped such teaching. But I would not get rid of the possibility that someone is still spreading the idea or that it went underground. It's like an understood thing in the community—you should know it if you are a core member."
According to this former member, Jang said that as a leader, he [Jang] needed to accept responsibility for the erroneous teaching, but he also said that he was innocent, and blamed one or two misguided followers for the lessons that had intimated that he was the Second Coming Christ. Another member said that Jang removed Lin from her official positions of responsibility amid the investigations in Asia. Her husband, Andrew Lin, is chairman of the board of Olivet University. (Andrew and Borah Lin did not respond to repeated requests for interviews, but through a lawyer Andrew denied ever calling Jang the "Second Coming Christ." Wagner said Borah Lin also denied ever making such a statement.) Former members say that Borah Lin remains very influential in the group, perhaps second only to Jang himself. An April 2012 e-mail from an Olivet student calls Borah "pastor," and said she spoke at a recent major event regarding Olivet's campus planning.
韩国基督教总联合会的异端调查委员会委员千景蔡（Sam Kyung Chae）却对这个调查结果提出异议。在2008年，他和委员会的其他两人撰文，对委员会认定的“无法找到任何证据怀疑张大卫与自1997年开始的统一教会（Unification Church，韩国人文鲜明领导——译者注）有关”提出质疑。
韩国基督教总联合会的报告及随之而来的争执，使组织的结构开始分裂。20余个教派分离出来并成立了韩国教堂共融会（Communion of Churches in Korea (CCIK)），并计划开展对张大卫及其影响力和理论的新调查。
根据这位前高管所说，张大卫曾经表示作为管理者，自己应该为教育的错误负责，但是他又说自己是无辜的，并把责任推给自己的追随者，说他们错将他形容为再来基督。亦有成员表示，张大卫已经免去了Borah Lin亚洲调查员的职位。她的丈夫Andrew Lin 是伟仁大学的董事长。夫妻二人多次拒绝接受采访。但是根据一位律师的说法，Andrew甚至拒绝称张大卫为“再来基督”。Wagner说Borah Lin亦拒绝如此称呼张大卫。Borah Lin在组织中的地位极为重要，甚至仅次于张大卫。伟仁大学的一个学生在2012年4月的一封邮件中曾经称Borah为“牧师”，并称她在伟仁大学呼风唤雨。
Several former members believe that many of Jang's core followers probably have not changed their views. A former member from China said that at least one current member insisted that their earlier teaching had not been a mistake. A former U.S. member estimates that about 10 to 20 percent of the movement's members believe that Jang is the Second Coming Christ. Yet another former U.S. member put the percentage higher.
"It's higher than 20 percent, at least in the inner circle," the former member said. "It's difficult to say exactly what percentage actually believes it. But they've all been taught lessons where he is compared to the Christ, or he is fulfilling Christ's commission."
The extent of the belief and teaching may vary by region as well. "We all believed that he was the 'Second Coming Christ' when I was in the Shanghai community," said a member who says he left in the mid-2000s after several years. "After we signed a member card, all of the members were told directly that our pastor (David Jang) was the 'Second Coming Christ.'"
In 2005, as the CCK was in its second of four investigations of Jang, it was not yet a member of the World Evangelical Alliance (WEA). (The WEA's national alliance at the time was the Korea Evangelical Fellowship.) But at the time, the WEA was shifting its attention from identifying and cultivating such partners to solving its own issues with finances and mission.
World Evangelical Alliance CEO Geoff Tunnicliffe Responds
World Evangelical Alliance CEO and secretary general Geoff Tunnicliffe insisted that CT reporters submit questions for this story in writing. When CT did so, he issued this response:
"At the core of your questions to us you consistently refer to the 'Jang Community.' All other questions seem to stem from this understanding. We specifically reject this presumption, as did the Supreme Court of Korea that found similar statements untrue and libelous. We would therefore refer you to the Christian Council of Korea, our member body in South Korea who has already ruled on this matter several times. The Christian Council of Korea represents 71 denominations and over 80 percent of all the Protestant Christians in South Korea."
CT found no evidence of a Supreme Court ruling, but the court did let stand a lower court's libel decision against Deulsori Times, which had criticized Jang. Deulsori Times and others characterize the ruling as technical: The Times had reported that Christian Today was connected to Jang, and Christian Today denied it. The court awarded Christian Today the equivalent of $782.
CT沒法從最高法院找到相關的裁決，但在下級法院能找到「荒野之聲時報」（Deulsori Times）因評論張的報導涉及誹謗之案件的裁決，時報在報導中指出「今天基督徒」(Christian Today）是與張大衛有關連的，而「今天基督徒」作出否認，因此法院判罰相當於782美元的賠償給「今天基督徒」，但「荒野之聲時報」及其他被告均認為這個只屬於技術性層面的判決。
Gary Edmonds, director of the WEA from 2002 to 2005, supported the shift, but said it wasn't a great fit with his gifts or passions. Several months before the end of his tenure, Edmonds was approached by representatives of The Christian Post, who offered to help the WEA's promotional and advocacy efforts. Geoff Tunnicliffe, who followed Edmonds as international director of the WEA and who had previously raised the profile of the Evangelical Fellowship of Canada through public policy advocacy, took The Christian Post up on its offer to help.
Five months after Tunnicliffe's appointment in 2005, the WEA opened an Information Technology Center on the San Francisco campus of Jang's Olivet University. Several sources say that organizations started by Jang and his followers began to support the WEA financially, and in April 2007, Jang was accepted onto the WEA's North American Council. Two months later, Olivet University invited Tunnicliffe to be their commencement speaker and presented him with an honorary doctorate. Over the next four years, The Christian Post reporters also began to work for the WEA as press secretaries, and an Olivet graduate became director of communications. The former CEO of Deographics was appointed executive director of the WEA's IT Commission. An Olivet graduate from The Christian Post and Jubilee Mission was hired as their chief of staff. The WEA's website moved onto the servers that host the websites of The Christian Post, Olivet, Young Disciples of Jesus, and other Jang-associated organizations. Soon thereafter, the WEA began sharing office space with Jang's companies. Some 20 organizations associated with Jang have been accepted for membership into the WEA (composing a third of its global partners and a sixth of its associate members). However, none of the former members CT talked to, nor any of Jang's critics, alleged any wrongdoing by the WEA itself; where there was concern it was simply that the WEA had given legitimacy to Jang and his organizations by associating so closely with them.
Seeking Influence and Legitimacy
While The Christian Post was approaching the WEA in 2005, the CEO of The Gospel Herald was asking Thomas Wang to be the Hong Kong newspaper's honorary chair. Wang, president of the Great Commission Center International and former international director of the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization, said he was impressed by the CEO's zeal and energy for the gospel and agreed to lend his name to The Gospel Herald's endeavors. Soon afterwards, Wang began receiving warnings from friends in Asia. After some investigation, he resigned and requested that his name be removed from the website. In 2008 he issued a statement describing his experience with the group, concluding, "I am very much concerned about the deceptive nature of the community and the fact that many evangelical leaders today are still unaware of the true picture."
Wang told CT that he has tried to warn Christian leaders in the United States and Asia about Jang and his organizations, and he is surprised that so many continue to lend their names, especially leaders in the Southern Baptist Convention.
2002年至2005年WEA的总干事- Gary Edmonds，支持转变，但他说，这不是一个非常适合他的恩赐或负担。他的任期结束前几个月，基督教邮报(CP)“的代表与 Edmonds 联系表达愿意帮助WEA的推广和宣传工作。Geoff Tunnicliffe出身於加拿大福音团契的继任总干事，通过CP 的提供的帮助，去推广他们的公共政策。
两个月后，伟仁大学邀请Geoff Tunnicliffe在毕业典礼演讲，授予他名誉博士学位。在接下来的四年中，CP 的记者也开始成WEA的新闻秘书，另外还有伟仁大学的成为WEA 的通讯主任。Deographics 的前执行长也被 WEA 任命为IT委员会执行主任。
一位从伟仁大学毕业在CP 和Jubilee Mission 的同工被聘为他们的参谋长。WEA的网站迁移到与CP, 伟仁大学,耶稣青年会以及其他与张大卫相关事工网站的相同的服务器上。此后不久，WEA的开始与张大卫的公司共同使用办公空间。与张大卫相关的有20个机构或组织被纳成为WEA的成员(composing a third of its global partners and a sixth of its associate members)。然而，none of the former members CT talked to, nor any of Jang's critics, alleged any wrongdoing by the WEA itself; where there was concern it was simply that the WEA had given legitimacy to Jang and his organizations by associating so closely with them.
当CP 在2005 年开始与WEA 接触 的同时基督日报(Gospel Herald) 的执行长邀请王永信牧师担任该报的荣誉主席.。王永信牧师当时是美国大使命中心的总干事，也是洛桑運動前国际部委员会主席，王牧师说，他对GH 执行长对福音的热情和精力留下深刻的印象，并使同意GH 使用他的名字。不久，王牧师开始接到来自亚洲的朋友警告。经过一番调查后，他辞掉GH 职份，并要求他的名字从网站中删除。在2008年，他发表了一份声明，说明他这段时间的经验与结论，“我担忧这个有欺骗性质的团体和许多福音派领袖今天仍然不知道的实情。”
by Daniel T
"What they always try to do is get evangelical leaders as advisers or their honorary leaders," he said.
The response documents from Olivet University acknowledge that Wang is "a well-respected pastor in Chinese churches worldwide," and allege that he has been misled by "fabricated materials from [blogger] Yamaya in Japan." The documents also say that Wang's break with The Gospel Herald was sparked by "different standpoints on the state-owned churches in China" rather than the Jang controversies.
Wang is right that Southern Baptists have played a prominent role on advisory boards of Jang's organizations. The Christian Post, which bills itself as "the nation's most comprehensive Christian news website," lists as its chairman Wagner, the president of Olivet University (OU) who ran for the Southern Baptist Convention presidency in 2008. Richard Land, president of the Southern Baptist's Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission, is the media outlet's executive editor.
Land declined to comment on his involvement and repeatedly referred questions to Post CEO Will Anderson and to Olivet's Wagner. But he told Baptist Press that in his job, "I write at least one column a month on current moral issues, and I'm available to advise and consult with the writers and editorial staff upon their request on issues they should cover and how to cover them." The Tennessean reported that Land's position is paid.
Southern Baptist's Theological Seminary president Albert Mohler is listed among the Post's senior editorial advisers, along with activist Mark Creech; evangelist Will Graham; pastors Joel C. Hunter, Harry R. Jackson Jr., and Samuel Rodriguez; and WEA's William Taylor. James Draper was listed on the advisory board in 2005, when he was president of LifeWay Christian Resources. In 2006, when Thom Rainer stepped into the LifeWay presidency, he similarly replaced Draper on The Christian Post's advisory board. (Neither is currently listed. Southeastern Baptist president Daniel Akin says he resigned from the board in late July.)
In CT's May 2008 interview with Wagner and Kenneth Chan (an Olivet grad who was then executive editor of The Christian Post), the two men disagreed about the specific relationship between the two organizations.
"All of these movements are totally independent. They are totally self-supporting," Chan said.
"That may be technically true. But OU specializes in the creation of ministries," Wagner responded. "Our students were used to create many ministries and businesses," he said, and noted that the school ran several of them, including Verecom, as independent businesses. "We have offices in 10 different time zones," he said. "We're doing work for Honda and HP [Hewlettt-Packard]. These ministries then contribute money back to OU."
CT asked Wagner: "So what unites the movement?"
"One is God," he responded. "But another is the spiritual leader; he's the one that has tied it all together. He had the vision for Olivet." He later added passion to the list.
In an August 2012 interview, Wagner said members of the Olivet mission movement treat Jang with reverence, but only in the same way other parts of the evangelical movement adore their spiritual leaders. "We look at Dr. Jang as a tremendous leader, not as the reincarnate Christ," he said. "I've worked with him for about eight years. I'm firmly convinced that they are not lying. I'm firmly convinced that our Christology is solid."
王牧师认为美南浸信会在为张大卫的组织背书扮演的重要的角色是千真万确, “Christian Post” 他们在他们自己的网站上广告”全国最全面基督教新闻的网站”,列出曾在2008 竞选美南浸信会主席Wanger, 是伟仁大学的校长, 美南浸信会伦理及宗教自由委员会的主席Richard Land，是媒体的执行编辑。
Richard Land拒絕对他自己与该组织的參與的状态和反复被提到与前CEO Will Anderson和 OT 的Wanger 的关系有任何的评论。但他( Richard Land) 告訴浸信會出版社他受雇於该组织的工作为：”我每月至少针对當前的道德問題为他们写一篇专栏，并且我应他们要求成为他们作家和編輯人員的諮詢顾问。The Tennessean (田纳西的报纸) 报导Richard Land 是受薪的工作。
美南浸信會神學院院长Albert Mohler被列為“Christian Post”的資深編輯顧問，同时间列名的有Mark Creech; evangelist Will Graham; pastors Joel C. Hunter, Harry R. Jackson Jr., Samuel Rodriguez和WEA 的 William Taylor. James Drape在2005 年担任LifeWay Christian Resources 的总干事期间也是CT 的顾问。在2006年時，Thom Rainer在2006 年竞选LifeWay Christian Resources的总干事,他跟James Drape一样也成为 CP 的顾问。以上提到的几位已经从顾问中除名了,美南浸信会主席 Daniel Akin 告诉本刊他已经在今年七月辞掉顾问的角色）
在2008年5月CT与Wagner 和Kenneth Chan（委仁大学毕业，CP“执行编辑）的采访中，他们两位否定了这两个组织( CP 和OU) 之间有特别的关系。
"All of these movements are totally independent. They are totally self-supporting," Chan said.
“两者有关系可能是技术上是真实的，但OU专门建立新的事工。” Wagner回应。 “我们的学生建立了许多事工和企业，” Wagner说，他并指出，学校也经营个公司，包括Verecom。 “我们在10个不同的时区都设有办工室，”他说。 “我们正在做本田和惠普(Hewlettt) 的工作项目。这些事工将收入投回OU。”
CT 问 Wagner: 那什么力量把这些事工联合起来？
Wagner在2012年8月接受采访时，表示OT 使命运动的成员如其它福音运动一崇拜/尊敬他们的精神领袖-张大卫牧师。 “我们视张博士为非常优秀领导，不为转世基督，”他说。 “我与他共事了8年左右。我坚信，他们没有说谎。我坚信，我们基督的教义是稳固的。”
By Daniel T
Wagner said that Jang has no input on school decisions and denied the rumors about the teaching. "Do I look like the reincarnate Christ?" Wagner said Jang told him. "I'm just a sinner!" Meeting with the members of the Hong Kong committee didn't change Wagner's mind, he said, and now he doesn't even have the tiniest doubt about Jang's orthodoxy. "If I did, I wouldn't be here," he said. And if Jang had ever claimed to be the reincarnate Christ, "he'd have really made a mistake turning his school over to a bunch of radical evangelicals."
One of those evangelicals is Don Tinder, a former CT associate editor and dean of Tyndale Theological Seminary in Amsterdam. He now serves as dean of Olivet Theological College and Seminary. "In the years I've been associated with Jang I've seen not the slightest indication of anything I'd consider heretical," he said. He also said he's seen no evidence that the mainstream evangelical teaching in the classroom diverges from anything the students learn in Apostolos Missions. "There's been no suggestion that [they're] learning these things to learn what the mainstream believes and have [their] own teaching."
No one CT talked to for this story claimed that the "history lessons" that allegedly encourage the belief that Jang is the "Second Coming Christ" were ever taught in Olivet classrooms, or that Apostolos or Young Disciples members have encouraged the belief among its members in recent years.
Next Up: A U.S. Inquiry Panel
The concerns which have been raised about Jang have not gone unnoticed by the Glorieta community. Over the summer, Olivet University has been leasing an unused portion of the Glorieta campus while they complete negotiations with LifeWay. Local residents say they were initially excited to learn that a Christian university might be acquiring Glorieta. But research into Olivet caused some concerns. At a recent homeowners meeting with LifeWay, one resident raised her hand and asked, "So who is David Jang, and does he claim to be the Second Coming Christ?"
Marty King, the LifeWay spokesman, said the primary condition of the negotiations between LifeWay and Olivet would be a review by the National Association of Evangelicals to determine their theological compatibility. The NAE says it is keeping the review team members and deliberations confidential. This review, members of the Glorieta community and Olivet University both say, is most welcome. "We are intending to prove our evangelical theological position through the LifeWay review," Wagner said. "I don't think we're going to have any complications."
Ted Olsen is CT's managing editor, news and online journalism. Ken Smith is an independent journalist based in Washington State.